Sunday, 30 April 2017

Pallavi Gupta

Gender Inequality in the Indian Police Force

Gender_inequality_lawji.in

INTRODUCTION

In the 1ast few years India has observed a drastic and positive change in the ro1e of women in the society. The Industrial Revo1ution along with Libera1ization and Globa1ization has elevated the status of women from a traditional housewife to that of a professiona1. Indian women are not active1y taking part in a11 economic activities and simu1taneously taking care of their fami1y. 

Some of the greatest examples are:
Mrs. Indira Gandhi (First Female Prime Minister of India)
Mrs. Pratibha Patil (First Female President of India)
Ms. Chanda kochchar (First Female MD and CEO of the country’s private sector)
Ms. Kanchan C. Bhattacharya (First Female DG of Police)
MsKiran Bedi (First Female IPS Officer)
However, on the other hand gender discrimination against women still exists particularly in the Police Force. Policing is one of the most male dominated professions in the world. Women are generally regarded as the weaker sex and one endowed with womanly qualities and thus need a safeguard. Policing is a demanding job which involves long and undetermined hours of duty. It is believed that the characteristics of women are not fit for the requirements of such a profession. The condition of   police women in India is exactly the same, women are still under represented and are still under-represented and are not assigned to field missions to the same extent as men.

They are protected and are hardly assigned formidable police work. Most of them are posted as PSO’S to VIP wives and children and are rarely given important roles depriving them of earning identification and sharing power. Only when there is a women-centric or where the criminal is a women, they are sent out. Going by this logic maximum number of women police personnel should be seen in Delhi given the fact that the city has earned the title of the “rape capital” of the country. Rape by a police official in the form of custodial rape or otherwise seems to be an established precedent here.

In a response to an RTI query, it was disc1osed that approximately 100 po1icemen were found to be involved in rape in the past 10 years. To make matters worse, it was recent1y reported that a sub-inspector of an area was invo1ved in rape on the pretext of marriage. Need1ess to say, that the people especially women of De1hi have lost faith in the po1ice.Therefore it has become crucia1 to emp1oy more women in the po1ice. According to 2013 statistics po1icewomen constitutes only 7.13% (5,356) of 75,169 police personnel in Delhi.  A number of states in India (for instance Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Tami1 Nadu and Punjab) have estab1ished all women po1ice stations (AWPS) which are managed and run entire1y by women personne1.

This is because women genera11y fee1 less comfortab1e about approaching po1ice stations manned by women, rather than regular police stations especially for women re1ated prob1ems such as dowry pressurization, sexua1 mo1estation, assau1t, bigamy, eve-teasing, domestic vio1ence etc. Unfortunate1y, De1hi hasn’t made any progress here. Time and again various promises have been made by the government and po1ice authorities ensuring that more women personne1 will be included in the force, but the number remains woefu11y low.
police_force_lawji.in

Ru1e of Law is the keystone of any democracy. Ru1e of 1aw essentia11y means equa1ity before 1aw and a11 individua1s being subjected to the same 1aws in the same measure. Our constitution grants equa1ity to women and a1so empowers the state to adopt measures of positive discrimination in favor of women to ba1ance the increasing socio-economic, educationa1 and politica1 disadvantages faced by them. The princip1e of gender equa1ity is enshrined in the Preamb1e, Fundamenta1 Rights, Fundamenta1 Duties and Directive Princip1es. A1though the Indian Government has enacted various women specific 1egislations to upho1d the constitutiona1 mandate but protection against gender based discrimination in recruitment and promotions is express1y provided by the Equa1Remuneration Act, 1976

For the purpose of increasing emp1oyment opportunities of women, a provision in this act exc1usive1y calls for setting up of an advisory committee. Also the Nationa1 Po1ice Commission in its 5th report recommended the need of recruiting more women and assigning equa1 work to both men and women. India has a1so ratified various internationa1conventions and human rights instruments expressing the same view like the Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies1985. Beijing Declaration and the p1atform for action 1995. The most important being the Convention on e1imination of all forms of Discrimination against women. However, one can easily notice the wide gap preva1ent between the goals enunciated in the Constitution, 1egis1ation, po1icies and p1ans on the one hand and the stark rea1ity of the status of po1iceman in India on the other.
The ro1e of the po1ice is crucia1 in any society. In our society a po1iceman is seen as a mark of state power, force and punishment and not as a protector of the state. Maintaining pub1ic order and peace with such an image can be unnerving task. Under these circumstances, women can prove to be an asset to the force. Research have disproved the notion that women are not suited for po1icing. Women are known to emp1oy a different sty1e of conf1ict resolution i.e. communication before physica1 confrontation. Whi1e women are typica11seen as compassionate, emotiona1 and nonvio1ent, the very same traits can enhance the qua1ity and efficiency of a department as they are quick to response to crimes against women and chi1dren. Men and women have different persona1ity traits and behavior patterns. If these differences are managed with proper understanding, they can be he1pful in creating an exce11ent work environment within the po1ice organization.

The restructuring of the Indian po1ice station wi11 require a multi-faceted approach. However, the first step in this direction should be to give more representation to women in the force. India being a democratic country, the princip1e of democratic po1icing should innately be app1ied here. While the western countries are busy coping with the dynamics of feminism and e1itism among women, India is sad1y sti11 strugg1ing with physica1 presence of women in a po1ice station. Ours is a tradition bound society and gender based stereotypes are not going to vanish in a day. In India, Po1icing is one profession which is neither encouraged by parents nor taken up by interest, especia11y in the case of women. However, on one 1evel it is up to the po1icewomen of the nation to adopt an activist approach and address the gross injustice happening, on another 1eve1 government shou1d formu1ate and strict1y implement po1icies that guarantee equa1ity between ma1e and fema1e workforce. Women po1ice personne1 on1y demand, that they be treated at par so that they get a fair opportunity to prove their worth. The same se1ection criteria, training standards, incentives and work schedu1es should be applicab1e to them as app1icable to them as those app1icab1e to their male co11eague. It is time we need to give Indian po1icewomen the respect they deserved.

Women have been fighting for their rights in every fie1d but this fie1d of po1icing has been a great cha11enge for women to face. They have been deprived of adequate opportunities to uplift their position in po1ice forces. Women have been taking a backseat in this profession because of their ma1e counterparts and society commenting on the physica1 weakness of women.

CHALLENGES FACED BY FEMALE POLICE OFFICERS
• Acceptance by male po1ice officers
• Discrimination and sexua1 harassment
• Intra-Gender cha11enges
• Lack of Faci1ities
• Disturbed persona1 and socia1 1ife
• Improper physica1 and mi1itary training
• Improper patro11ing schedu1e
• Lack of sanitation
The main cha11enges that the female 1aw enforcement officers are facing are those rooted in prejudices regarding distinctions between men and women.  There is no truth in the fact that the average fema1e po1ice officer is physica11weaker and far more miniscu1e in stature than her ma1e mates, which certain1y can present a cha11enge while physica11y conquering male suspects.  This can pose a serious danger to fema1e officers whi1e confronting ma1e suspects, especially much larger and stronger suspects who may be drunk because of a1coho1 or drugs, or the officer’s back-up has not yet arrived on the scene.  On the who1e, however, fema1e po1ice officers have conductedthemse1ves admirab1y on the streets and are credited with emp1oying more effective tactics that have prevented the need for physica1 a1tercations.  Women po1ice officers have a tendency to be more attentive in the area of ora1 and physica1communications that can compensate to their disadvantage in the area of physica1 strength.

The main cha11enges for female police offices, then, are in the preconceptions existing among their ma1e counterparts and superiors.  Women have contended for hundreds of years to be treated equa11y to men, and that hust1e continues to this day in many professions, inc1uding 1aw impositions.  Even after disp1aying affirmation of competency on par with ma1e po1ice officers, women are sti11 subjected to the kinds of mo1estationand degrading behavior that survives every effort at undoing the be1iefs concea1ed such behavior.  Women are assumed to be 1ess active, and on1y recent1y have seen their fema1e counterparts promoted in strict accordance with merit rather than cu1ture – and there are few professions more steeped in ma1e-dominated cu1tures than 1aw impositions. 
Another, more comp1ex cha11enge fema1e po1ice officer faceis in the area of undercover working.  Women po1ice officers are a major resource when penetrating crimina1 organizations or when administering survei11ance of crimina1 accused.  Theyoften b1end-in to their environment better than ma1e officers and the use of fake husband-and-wife teams is a definite advantage in many socia1 or pub1ic settings.  The prob1em deve1ops, however, when a1one fema1e undercover officers are compe11ed witthe inevitab1e sexua1 faci1itation of ma1e suspects to whom they have grown c1ose in the interpretation of their duties.  The investigation has to be ha1ted before the fema1e officer is forced to carry out any such activity, imp1icit1y raising the skepticism of the suspect.  These challenges, however, are identified and hand1ed according1y, and the advantages of fema1e undercover officer great1y exceeds the 1mited cha11enge of sexua1 pressures from criminal suspects.
By far, the greatest cha11enge faced by fema1e po1ice officers is the strugg1e to be taken serious1y by ma1e co11eague and superiors who haven archaic notions of gender equa1ity.  Fema1e po1ice officers are far more 1ike1y than their ma1e co11eagues to be obligated to fi1e a civi1 suit against their superiors and departments for discrimination, and the tendency among many ma1es to treat females different1y -- even when that difference is well-intended, as when being protective of fema1e co11eagues – the distinctions make it harder for women to succeed in this particu1ar workp1ace.
We 1ive in such a deep patriarchy that even women who join the law impositions who join to enforce laws for women who are sexua11mo1ested, harassed, are pit right into the midd1e of what enhances such behavior. Think about it Law impositions is so heavi1y patriarchy that a women is a1ways praised for attaining such high ranks within the profession.
Peop1e 1ove to use gender as an excuse that men are supercilious to women in terms of strength. However you will never hear the same person discuss how women have the capability to attain the same level of strength men have. We are so stuck in the ma1e dominated society that women are forced to sti11 be seen as co11een in distress and dainty that they never take the time to exp1ore their strength and when they do they thrown accusations of trying to "man1y" and they are no 1onger seen as feminine. So imagine the adverse women in this fie1d have to dea1 with. It as if they have to compromise their femininity in order to attain strength and be took serious1y by not only their male counterparts but ma1es who come into question.
There are just so many stories out there where men have tried to "seduce" a fema1e cop into 1etting them off the hook or by pass something they have done wrong. Then they regard the fema1e officer with demeaning names and call her co1d and disown her 1ooks. When in rea1ity fema1e cops are just doing their job. A11 this extra resentment just because she's fema1e and she choose not to succumb to such things it's crazy.
Whi1e men and women in the police forces have been given different standards and treatments and men have been benefited more in terms of ranks and promotions. This proves the insufficiencies of the po1ice force.
Women use to spend their days in police force by toiling in open under the hot sun. They were given no restroom facilities they prefer to stay thirsty rather that struggling to find a place to relieve herself. It is surely hard to believe but sexual molestation and lack of toilets is a major problems faced by women in the India police force. Women have been facing inappropriate behavior of their male counterparts from a long time n it is prevailing even today. Allocation of duties and ranks are still seen to be biased and women had to work twice as much as men to prove their worth in the police force.  Inspite of being capable enough they have been given a backseat just because they are “women” and they could not be ahead of their male counterparts. They have to work twice or sometimes even thrice as that of the male colleagues to prove their worth and capability for this job.
There was lack of several basic facilities to the females in the Indian police force. Women were not given required facilities to survive in the police force. They spends the whole day toiling under the hot sun with unhygienic conditions because of lack of sanitation. Despite the fact that the Government of India issued guidelines already stating that all police stations need to mandatorily have creches and toilets, it is not yet implemented properly. Women in traffic departments are suffering a lot because of this lack of sanitation. Most women choose to remain thirsty rather than using the facilities they offer. Women in India’s police forces face bias from male colleagues and sometimes female might also have such a mindset they are weak, less willing to work and less tough and less capable.
Another major problem is that though the number of women in the police forces nationally has grown in india but it still remains only 6 per cenrt as yet. The wide difference between the no. of males and females in the indian police force and this is despite the fact that in approx. 12 states a rule has been passed setting a quota of 30% or more for the women in police force. Another major problem is that even if it is implemented it only applies to the small number of posts that become vacant every year with requirements.

CASE STUDIES ON GENDER INEQUALITY ON THE INDIAN POLICE FORCE

A study released by the common wealth human rights initiative on the condition of woman working in police force in south Asia. It reveals that in a police force of 22, 86, 646, only 1, 05, 325 are females of the Indian police force only 928 female work force are IPS officers and the total number of IPS officer is approximately 4000. The government in its policy ensured 33% representation for women in the police forces in all union territories. In a report Titled “Rough Roads to Equality – Women police in South Asia”. Revealed that only 4.6% of police force were females while in Pakistan it was 0.9% and in Maldives 7.4%.

In another report it was found that there has been no allowances for motherhood which is a women social responsibility present in the Indian police force and also the work timings are difficult for women to keep up with. Another major rule brought by the government that every case of violence against women be taken up by a women police officer which makes work more difficult in states with less female officers. On the other hand Tamil Nadu having the highest number of women police officers stands at 12% with 13842 women police officers. Also Assam having only 510 women officers which comprise of 0.93% of the total women officers.

Sexual Harassment is unrestrained in the Indian police force and is considered normal in the police. The attitude is that if you have come to work you have to suffer as well. Women feel reluctant to complaint about the male counterparts and also many women didn’t know that they can actually complaint. A study revealed that in Kerala and Haryana 18 out of 66 respondents did not know that they can complaint about sexual harassment.
Aruna Bahuguna was the first woman in India to head the national police academy revealed that women are kept as show pieces or receptionists only and when she went for her first maternity leave the DFG did not know what was that. Also there was no child care leave which left women with a guilt that they were focusing on career at the cost of their children.
A new report launched by common wealth human rights initiative CHRI throws a light on the low number of women in the Indian police force the report talking about gender inequality in the police force also talks about the structural causes policy lacking and also the attitude of the general public and the police force in particular that are responsible for such ratio of men and women in the Indian police force. The number of women in Indian police force have been growing marginally.
A Un women report of 2011 estimated that Globally only 9% of the police force are females with a rate falling as low as 2% falling in some parts of the world. There are several structural causes which is responsible for the low number of women in the Indian police force. The reasons range from the societal attitude towards women and also the police force being male dominated due to policy level hurdles and recruitment process, promotions lack of basic facilities child care policies and facilities.
Gender Inequality in the Indian police force starts from the recruitment process from itself. Police recruitment takes place at central (IPS for assistant superintendent onwards) but women are mostly recruited at the constable level also state level state police forces continue to have separate caders for men and women at state level entry points which means a very few vacancy are left for women which affects their career as large number of seniority and promotion list are appointed to the male officers.
Low numbers of women in Indian police force is due to the lack of women coming up to join the forces because of various reasons. A parliament committee recommended that there is an urgent need for allocation of central funds for modernization of police force and that it should be linked towards recruitment of women to increase women representation in police department. The norms within the police services is patriarchal leading to negative stereotype of women police officer and increasing gender bias.
Men are in a leading positions in the police force and women hold lower positions as they are considered to be less aware and more restricted in their responses when observing misbehavior among their colleagues. Men are considered to be more aware of the inappropriate behavior according to the official code of conduct.

EXISTING EVIDENCE OF GENDER DIFFERENCES
Studies have shown that women are better gender and found out to be less corrupt than their male counterparts. Women are claim to be more pro social and ethical. They are considered neither more nor less socially oriented but simply more sensitive in accounting for social conditions compared to men. Laboratory evidences suggest that women are essentially more honest but more opportunistic when they have a chance to break a corrupt contract. The gender differences in attitudes towards corruption are not universal but are biologically and intentionally formed. Though March 8 has been celebrated as women’s day which is a very positive thing and proud thing to do but women are still facing a lot of problems. It is always believed that a society progress only when women have equal share in all walks of life. Though due to reservations more number of women are taking part equally in a society but still the number is marginal and not upto the mark. 
A recent study undertaken by the Centre for Police Research(CPR) In Pune shows that women are suffering because of various reasons which is a big issue. According to this study attitudinal changes is actually the need of the hour in the Indian police forces. The cultural environment need a lot of changes and its not the lack in the women it’s the lack in the mindset of the society that thinks that women are week and not fir for such jobs. There is need of a special budget for basic infrastructure for women in the police.
Man and woman are both equal and both plays an important role in the synthesis and development of their families in a particular and the society in general. Indeed, the fight for legal impartiality has been one of the major area of concern of the women’s fight all over the world. In India, since long back, women were considered as a mistreated section of the society and they were suppressed for centuries. During the national struggle for independence, Gandhi gave a call of upliftment of women. He said that he is not going to compromise in the matter of women’s rights. The difference in sex and physical form denotes no difference in status. Women complement men equally and are no way inferior. Thus, the first task in post-independent India was to provide a constitution to the people, which would not make any differences on the basis of gender. The preamble of constitution promises to secure to all its citizens- “Justice economical, social, and political”.

The constitution declares that the equality before the law and the equal protection of laws will be available to all the citizen of India. Similarly, there shall be no discrimination against any citizen on the ground of gender. Article 15(1) guarantees equalities of opportunities for all citizens in matters of employment. Article 15(3) provides that the state can make any special provisions for women and children. Besides, directive principle of state policy which concern women directly and have a special bearing on their status directly and have a special bearing on their status include Article 39(a) right to an adequate means of livelihood; (d) equal pay for equal work both men and women, (e) protection of health and strength of workers –men, women, children and Article 42 provides for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.

It is really important to note that though the Constitution of India is working since more than sixty years, the raising of the status of women to one of equality, freedom and dignity is still a question mark.
In India, since independence, a large number of steps have been taken for the upliftment of women in the society, For instance the Dowry prohibition Act 1961, The Equal Remuneration Act 1986, The Hindu Marriage Act 1956, The Hindu Succession Act 1956, The Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act, 1986, the commission of Sati (prevention) Act 1987, Protection of the Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005, etc. But, these laws have not made substantially any difference for the society.

The sense of diffidence, embarrassment and degradation always keep a women reticent. Our whole enculturation is such that for any unsuccessful marriage which results in such domestic violence or divorce, it is always the woman, who is held responsible. The traditions and the orthodox beliefs in India had left women helpless and they are not able to uplift their positions in the society. Family relations in India are governed by personal laws. The major religious communities are – Hindu, Muslim, Christian each have their personal laws. They are governed by their personal laws in matters of succession, marriage, divorce etc. In the laws of all the communities in particular women have a very little right of representation. It is very sad reality of today’s world that women are considered to be inferior in practice as well as in religious texts which has further deteriorated their conditions.
Gender Inequalities refers to the evident or concealed discrepancies among individuals based on the representation of gender. This problem in simple term is known as Gender prejudices which in simple terms means the gender favouritismor making difference between a male and female. In making partiality among the gender India has 10th rank out of all the countries in the world which is a matter of discontent for India. But this problem is becoming more serious day by day although government has banned the pre-natal sex examination test. In India since the older times this problem is prevailing more in the rural areas of our country where girl children are considered as a burden for the parents. The afflicted world in which we live is distinguished by deeply unequal sharing of the burden of tribulation between women and men. Gender Inequality exists in most part of the world.

However, imbalance between men and women has already takenmany different forms. Indeed, gender inequality is not one analogous phenomenon, but a collection of different and interconnected problems. The issue of gender inequality is one which has been publicly resonating through society for years. The problem of disproportion in employment being one of the most important issues today. In order to rectify this situation oneget to the roots of the problem and must understand the societalfactors that cause women to have a much more difficult time getting the same benefits, wages, and job opportunities as their male colleagues. The society in which we live has been shaped historically as a patriarchal society.

However, in many parts of the world, women receive less importance and health care than men do, and particularly girls often receive very much less support than boys. As a result of this gender inequality, the ethicality rates of females often exceed those of males in these countries. The concept of missing women was introduced to give some idea of the immensity of the phenomenon of women's tribulation in impermanence by concentrating on the women who are simply not there, due to unusually high tribulation compared with male mortality rates. In some regions in the world, inequality between women and men directly involves matters of great concerns, and takes the form of unusually high tribulation rates of women and a consequent prevalence of men in the total population, as opposed to the prevalence of women found in societies with little or no gender inequality in health care and nutrition.
The logic behind gender immunization training for police In order to make police officers act in a gender immune manner in cases of violence against women and in the release of their duties in general, there is an urgent need to do gender immunization working courses for police. At present, the concept of gender is misunderstood by a large number of police officers. There is also a lack of proper concern of the prevailing gender imbalances among police officers. Even if there is information, the sect of patriarchy prevailing in the police forcesdoes not easily permit a change in the perspective of male police officers toward women. The held by the police about sexual abuse and domestic abuse, clearly indicate the general attitude of police towards women. There are findings that male officers have to talk regarding the role of women colleagues also reflect the attitude of a majority of police officers towards women and the lack of awareness about the concept of gender. There is no need to integrate women into the higher posts of police. Women police personnel should be given tasks concerned to women and children as they are given easy works they become less enthusiastic towards their jobs. Women work as cooks in the police mess. Women should escort only female prisoners and not the males. Women should not be involved in operations against militants and insurgents. Women police officers are very restrictive and are not capable of handling hardened criminals. In order to remove the stereotypes and favouritism of police officers towards women in general which included women victims as well as women officers so that women can deal with cases of violence against women more effectively, it is importantthat all State police organizations undertake suitable steps, including organizing of training methods to immunize the police officers at all levels.

Recommendations of various committee reports for Upliftment of Women in Indian Police Force
                              
                                             Committee on Empowerment of Women
                                                                (2014-2015)
                                                              Second Report 
                                       Working Condition of Women in Police Force
The report basically deals with all the steps taken by the government for the better condition of women in India Police Force and to end the gender inequality prevailing in the police forces. This report tells about the increase in the percentage of women present in the police forces of various states. It was recorded that the state of Andhra Pradesh saw the highest increase in the percentage of women in police forces. It gave various recommendations and changes to be brought about at both center and state level for the better working conditions for women.
To begin with they tried to bring a change in the basic amenities and also to provide basic facilities to the women in the police forces. They tried to end the inadequacies of the basic facilities and also ensure basic health care facilities so that they are not discouraged to work for the police forces. They were ensured with basic health care and hygienic environment. Proper sanitation facilities including mobile toilets and also a mandatory and clean toilets in all the police stations all over India. Also the provision of separate toilets for men and women was talked about in this report. Also adequate and clean water for the shower facilities with separate rest rooms for men and women. The rest rooms should be located close to their place of duty. Also it was mandatory for the organization to look into all the facilities and also keep a check that women are not placed in the places devoid of such basic facilities. All these facilities should be adequately accessible so that there is no compromise with the safety of the women officials.
RESIDENTIAL ACCOMMODATION
This report also brought into for another reason for the low number of women in police forces that is the lack of residential accommodations available nearby their work place. By this report the Government suggested to bring out a proper housing policy to elevate the availability of accommodation facilities especially for the women nearby their workplace so that it is easy for the women to take care of their families as well as work efficiently in the police force. After the 14th Finance Commission Report, it is the responsibility of the state government to provide for accommodation facilities to the women police personnel especially. Earlier police stations were built upon rented accommodation which makes it difficult to build residential accommodations for the women personnel nearby. So after this report it was advised to give security verified rented accommodations nearby the quarters on priority basis to the women. This report took into consideration the lack of   residential accommodations which is a major cause of less number of women police officers in the country and also devised ways and means to overcome such problems and take effective measure to provide a safe and secure housing policies for women in the Indian police force.

GENDER SENSTISATION
This report also talks about the importance of gender sensitization in the police system of the country. This report suggested to bring this issue in the forefront and to do the needful to get over with this hurdle so that there is equality in the police forces and women are not downgraded just because they are women.
The features of Gender Sensitization Programme:
• Legality of punishments of crimes conducted against women
• Efforts by the police officials for gender sensitization in police system
• Case laws dealing with crimes against women
• Punishing the wrongdoers
• Taking care of the victims and give them adequate care.
• Keeping a check on the inequalities prevailing between men and women in policing
• Bringing in focus the reason behind lack of representation of women in police system
• Institutional analysis of marriage, family and other institutions

The committee strongly felt that gender sensitization in the police force will surely bring about positive changes in the system and works for the empowerment of women.
Apart from the above feature the report talked about various other initiatives such as:
• The committee asked the states and union territories to conduct seminars and programmes for the awareness and importance as well as need of gender sensitization.
• Also to organize workshops to stop crimes against women which are deteriorating the conditions of women in forces.
• Talked about the steps taken to combat with the crimes and punish the wrong doers.
• A new course is organized named “Crime against Women” in which investigators are trained to investigate for the crimes against women.


All these steps of the committee had a positive outlook towards creating a conducive working environment for women police officers in the police system. Also advised to print manuals for the different cadres on gender modules and also to make the police system to be more gender sensitize.


National Conference for Women in Police

The committee took various measures for the betterment of women which if taken seriously will bring about a positive change in the society. But if the state government failed to take follow all the recommendation seriously then the basic aim of such committee would fail to bring about the positive change. So the government suggested to introduce a mechanism to take care the progress done by the measures taken and effectively they working for the betterment of the police system and also what all further steps can be taken for the betterment of the system. Also the committee suggested to devise a specific time period after which the progress reports will be submitted so that effective and positive changes can brought about and the shortcomings in the system be overcome and also bring out more representation for the women in uniform in the police system.
Also six National conferences of women in police (NCWP) have been held:
1. New Delhi in 2002
2. Mussorie in 2005
3. Panchkula in 2009
4. Bhubaneshwar in 2010
5. Thrissur in 2012
6. Guwahati in 2014
After the 6th Conference a survey is conducted on the participants of the conference and their feedback was take and observations were brought into focus that are:
(i) Work satisfaction- out of all 86% of participants were satisfied with the work given to them and also were ready to do any work given to their male colleagues as well.

(ii) Delegation of official posts- only 27% of the participants were satisfied with the pos given to them. Many women claimed that they were not given any senior posts and promotions. They were not satisfied as the higher posts were still occupied by the males in particular.

(iii) Gender discrimination- Approximately 63% of participants did not felt any gender favouritism after the important steps taken by states to give more representation to women in the system, also 37% of the participants were victims of gender discrimination.

(iiii) Support from male counterparts- Approximately 87.4% of the participants felt that there was adequate and positive support from their male colleagues for the empowerment of women in system rather 10.8% of particpants were not happy with their male counterparts.

(v) Balance between personal and professional life- After the mandatory steps taken women found it easier to manage between their family and career. Due to the housing policy, accommodations were nearby their working places and they took care of their families easily but still 45% of women still found it difficult to manage with their family and career efficiently. Also participants were asked for some suggestions so they suggested for the introduction of crèche facilities and play school for marries women officers on duty.

(vi) Harassment/Grievance redressal system- Though the suggestion were made to punish the wrongdoers to stop the violence but that was not effective in practice, only 5.40% participants were satisfied with the redressalsystem.

Though the committee has asked the state administration for the timely action reports of all the measures taken and the changes they brought about but it is conclusive from the above report that the states were not working efficiently and also not submitting the reports timely. And that setting up of norms was not sufficient for the administration but the actual implementation was to be done and checked timely so that important measures can be brought about for a positive change.

STRESS MANAGEMENT IN POLICE FORCES
This report talks about the importance of stress management in the Indian Police forces. The need of the hour was to investigate about the various resons behind the stress in the Indian Police Forces especially women and to take effective measures for the stress management.
The various problems faced by women personnel are as follows:
• Child care centers and creche facilities
• Promotions and selection
• Responsibilities, duties and deployments
• Coaches and trainings by them
• Maternity leaves and child care leaves
• Sexual molestation at workplace
• Councilors for stress management
This was the major issue for the committee to work upon the stress management because it was very essential for the police system. Women on duty if are suffering from stress couldn’t efficiently focus on their duties because their tensions won’t let them concentrate on their work which will harm the administration. This committee talks about eliminating and combating the reasons for the stress of the officers by bringing up new policies that will help solving their problems and will bring them at peace and after they will be able to concentrate on their duties and work efficiently for the better working of the administration.

ENCOURAGEMENT TO WOMEN CANDIDATES
According to this report, women holding NCC ‘C’ certificates were given some additional marks which were different in different states. Some states also did not give any extra marks for the certificate holders which was backdrop for the women holding the certificates. After this report there comes a provision of giving mandatory extra marks to the NCC ‘C’ certificate holders in the police recruitment which will give women an opportunity to gain representation in the police system. Also in this report various guidelines were formulated for the states and union territories and it was mandatory for them to follow the practices. This will also become an encouraging factor for the women to come up and grab this opportunity. Women after this report were aware of their right to take the advantage of the certificates they have and gain representation in the policing. The ministry of home affairs after this reports issued guidelines for the state to follow and women holding the certificates should be given the extra weightage as stated. By this report a good number of women came up and used the opportunity and asked for their right.

BASIC AMENITIES
After this report, a target was set by the States/UT’s to provide for mandatory toilets each for men and women at every police stations. Also the target was to provide clean and healthy environment at work place. And to give adequate accommodations to the women officers to improve representation of women in policing. The committee talked about looking into the reasons behind the lack of basic facilities for women police personnel and to take all the essential measures to ensure that the basic facilities are provided to the women officers at their workplace. Also committee wanted the state to allocate funds for providing basic amenities to the women officer and also to achieve this objective as early as possible.
The status of the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF’S)   is given below:
(i) Central Reserve Police Force: In CRPF’s a large number of mobile toilets were made available for women officers on duty so that they do no compromise with their hygiene while being on duty. Around 55 mobile toilets were made for them to ensure them proper sanitation facilities.

(ii) Border Security Force: Women constables were employed in this for the duty of gate management and routine works and it was very essential to provide them with all the basic sanitation facilities by giving them separate toilets and rest rooms.

(iii) Central Industrial Security Force: For all the lady personnel, the areas were properly equipped with all the basic facilities and were provided hygienic work conditions

(iiii) Sashastra Seema Bal: Adequate accommodations for all the women personnel were provided necessarily. Permanent and semi-permanent accommodations for all women officers. Also they were provided with separate kitchens, dining areas and rest rooms facilities.

(v) Indo-Tibetan Border Force: These women personnel on duty are indulge into all the static work and so it is essential to provide them with hygienic and adequate number of toilets and rest room facilities.

(vi) Assam Riffles: The women personnel posted here, most of them work in the hospitals and it was ensured that they are provided with all the basic facilities of rest rooms and washrooms adequately and hygienically.

(vii) National Security Guard: women officers have been provided with separate rest room facilities.

The police stations existing in the country should have proper sanitation facilities with all the security ensured for the women personnel. Washrooms should have proper lockable doors and security of women should be on the priority list of the administration. Also ventilation and lighting should be ensured. It was a mandatory thing to provide with separate toilets for men and women and also the toilets should be clean and conveniently available. These facilities should be adequately and easily accessible to the women police personnel.

CRECHES/DAY CARE CENTRE FACILITIES
The committee advised for providing creches and day care facilities for the young children of the women officers so that it is easy for them to take care of their family and also concentrate on their duties. This will enable them to be satisfied that their children are safe and are given hygienic environment and it will enable them to concentrate on their duties efficiently. The committee ensured. Various policies were made by the government and also the funds were allocated for them so that this new facility should be made available to the women officers as adequately and as easily as possible.

POSTINGS & TRANSFER OF THE WOMEN PERSONNEL
The committee brought into focus another major reason for lesser number of women in police system and that is the rigid policy of the government for postings and transfer of the women police personnel. The committee brought about a policy to post the spouses at the same station and is being implemented by various police administration but it is not yet a pan India policy yet, it is at the discretion of the administration to follow this policy or not. Though this committee took a lot of initiatives for this policy to come into function and work in a positive for the women empowerment in police forces. This committee ensured that the transfer policy should be in the favor of women personnel.

CONCLUSION & SUGGESTIONS
The Indian Police Force need to actually work upon the problems which are resulting into less number of women personnel so as to get away with the gender biasness prevailing in the policing system. These problems need to look upon effectively and to provide various measures to bring an end to such problems. If such problems keep on increasing then the lack will increase with time. It is not only about bringing out measures but it is about what changes does the measures are bringing for the society with time and if the progress is also then also think of the reasons why the progress is slow and what steps should be taken to improve the progress of the policies implemented by the government for the empowerment of women. It is necessary for the policy makers to look into the positive and negative aspects of the policies and to work upon them effectively and efficiently. 
Women in the police forces need some motivating factors to convince themselves to join the police force. They do not want to hamper their careers at the cost of their family responsibility as the society itself wants them to be more responsible towards their family. Though these notions are considered orthodox but this is what is expected from the women. The changes in the policing system needs to be brought which will actually convince more and more women to join the police forces. The requirement of basic facilities that will help to ensure their health and hygiene. The presence of full support from their male counterparts will help them. Also less gender biasness in the police forces will help them empower themselves and to grab the high posts and positions because of their own capability.